Under Florida’s restrictive-covenant statute, Section 542.335(f), a restrictive covenant is only enforceable by a successor entity or third-party beneficiary if the agreement so provides. This provision can become very important following corporate merger or sale transactions. Or in the due-diligence period leading up to those transactions.
In a recent Florida case, Collier HMA Physician Mgmt, LLC v. Menichello, the plaintiff almost fell victim to this statutory requirement. A copy of the opinion can be downloaded here.
In this case, the plaintiff owns a healthcare business employing approximately 40 doctors. It also operates two hospitals and clinics. The defendant, a physician, previously worked for the plaintiff, where he signed a non-compete agreement prohibiting him from working for certain of the plaintiff’s competitors. After his departure, he accepted a position with one of those competitors, and the plaintiff filed suit.
The physician argued that a merger transaction involving the plaintiff’s corporate parent triggered the statutory provision above. Per the physician, since the agreement did not expressly provide for enforcement by successors, the merger invalidated the non-compete. The trial court agreed and granted summary judgment in the defendant’s favor.
The appellate court reversed. To reach that conclusion, it interpreted the term “successor” in the statute as “a corporation that, through amalgamation, consolidation, or other assumption of interests, is vested with the rights and duties of an earlier corporation.”
The court found that “the status of [the plaintiff] after the merger does not comport with the standard definition of a successor as it relates to corporations or other business entities.” In particular, there were several tiers of corporate entities between the plaintiff and the parent company that was subject to the merger. While the ownership of the ultimate parent company changed, “nothing about the corporate structure or ownership of [the plaintiff] was different after the merger”; it “continued in existence as a single member limited liability company.”
In the end, the plaintiff here was able to enforce its non-compete agreement. But all of this trouble could have been avoided. This leads to a very simple takeaway: when drafting restrictive covenants in Florida, include a provision allowing their enforcement by successors and assigns. Florida companies with existing restrictive-covenants should have a lawyer review them for compliance with this statute.
Similarly, anyone considering acquiring or merging with a company with Florida employees/independent contractors needs to have a lawyer review any restrictive covenants for this purpose.
The failure to include this provision could lead to all sorts of problems. For example, it could impede a later merger or sale of the company. But any Florida company can avoid these problems by having a lawyer conduct a simple review.