The Defend Trade Secrets Act, 18 U.S.C. 1030, et seq., provides immunity from liability for misappropriation of trade secrets in certain circumstances, namely if the disclosure:
(A) is made–
(i) in confidence to a Federal, State, or local government official, either directly or indirectly, or to an attorney; and
(ii) solely for the purpose of reporting or investigating a suspected violation of law; or
(B) is made in a complaint or other document filed in a lawsuit or other proceeding, if such filing is made under seal.
Since the DTSA was enacted in May 2016, there have not been many cases analyzing this portion of the statute. The Eastern District of Pennsylvania examined it in a recent opinion, Christian v. Lannett Co., Inc., E.D. Pa. Case No. 16-963 (the opinion can be downloaded below).
Christian is an unusual trade-secret case, as it started when the plaintiff asserted claims for employment discrimination. During discovery, the defendant learned that the plaintiff had retained a company laptop, which led to the plaintiff producing 22,000 pages of documents. Per the defendant, these contained trade secrets.
The defendant then filed a counterclaim under the DTSA, as well as other related claims, based on the plaintiff’s disclosure of trade secrets. But there was apparently no evidence of disclosure to anyone except the plaintiff’s lawyer, who only received the documents to produce them in the litigation.
The court concluded that “Plaintiff’s alleged disclosure was made to Plaintiff’s counsel pursuant to a discovery Order of this Court, within the context of a lawsuit regarding violations of Title VII, the ADA, and the FMLA,” and applied the immunity provision above to bar the DTSA claim.
The court did not specifically cite the immunity provision. And a strict application of that provision would seem to exclude the plaintiff from its protection, since the disclosure was not “solely for the purpose of reporting or investigating a suspected violation of law.” But the court’s decision is well within the spirit of the DTSA, which should not be used to prevent parties in litigation from communicating freely with, and providing discoverable documents to, their counsel.