It’s been a difficult week in Florida, as the state recovers from Hurricane Irma. But the storm did not deter the Florida Supreme Court from issuing what could be one of the most important opinions in the state’s history regarding Section 542.335, Florida Statutes, the statute governing restrictive covenants. I’m still dealing with hurricane-related issues as my office in Miami prepares to re-open tomorrow, which prevents me from relaying an in-depth analysis. But I wanted to pass along some key takeaways. A more comprehensive analysis will follow in the coming weeks.
This opinion, White v. Mederi Caretenders Visitng Services of Southeast Florida, LLC, resolves a District split on the issue of whether referral sources can constitute a legitimate business interest, a prerequisite under the statute. Referral sources are not included in the statute’s list of protectable business interests, but the statute prefaces that list with the words “includes, but is not limited to.”
I previously wrote about the divergent holdings on this issue. I argued that the Florida Supreme Court should give life to the statute’s “includes, but is not limited to” provision by ruling that referral sources can be a legitimate business interest. The opinion ended up mirroring my analysis, holding that “the subject statute protects a plethora of protected legitimate interests far beyond those listed in the subject statute.” Here are a few key points:
- This opinion has far-reaching implications beyond cases involving referral sources. It makes clear that courts should engage in industry-specific, context-based analysis to determine whether the plaintiff has a legitimate business interest, regardless of whether that interest is listed in the statute:
The illustrative list guides courts in their interpretation of what types of non-enumerated business interests qualify as legitimate under Section 542.335. However, because the statue protects more business interests than those specifically listed, courts must necessarily engage in fact- and industry-specific determinations when construing non-enumerated interests.
- The opinion repeatedly references industry-specific determinations. Lawyers attempting to enforce a restrictive covenant should consider what types of industry-specific evidence is necessary to justify the restrictive covenant.
- The Court also emphasized the purpose of the statute: “preventing unfair competition by protecting critical business interests.” This focus on unfair competition may shift courts’ analysis towards a determination of the unfair advantage provided to the new employer. This was always a consideration on some level, but it may rise in prominence.
- The opinion also contains language that will likely be cited by defendants: “For an employer to be entitled to protection, there must be special facts present over and above ordinary competition such that, absent a non-competition agreement, the employee will gain an unfair advantage in future competition with the employer.”
- Lawyers drafting restrictive covenants under Florida law should consider whether it makes sense to include language in which the employee acknowledges the importance of the business interest at issue to the company, particularly when that interest is not enumerated in the statute.
This opinion may embolden companies looking to enforce restrictive covenants. I would not be surprised if this case leads to increased litigation involving alleged business interests outside those listed in the statute. More analysis to come.
A copy of the opinion can be downloaded here.