Professors Invent Threat of “Trade Secret Trolls”

I’ve written several times in the past about the proposed legislation to create a federal cause of action for trade-secrets misappropriation (see herehere, and here). I also wrote a response to a letter signed by a number of professors who opposed this legislation. Now, Professors David S. Levine and Sharon K. Sandeen have written a law review article titled “Here Come the Trade Secret Trolls.” This article misses the mark by a mile.

Here is the article’s core argument:

The [proposed federal] Acts are most likely to spawn a new intellectual property predator: the heretofore unknown “trade secret troll,” an alleged trade secret owning entity that uses broad trade secret law to exact rents via dubious threats of litigation directed at unsuspecting defendants.

The use of the term “troll” is meant to evoke patent trolls, who have been the subject of much scorn. But the so-called “trade secret troll” is far different than a patent troll. The latter actually own patent rights, which they wield to seek licensing fees. The article’s mythical trade-secret troll is simply someone willing to bring a frivolous lawsuit to extort an undeserved settlement. I suspect the authors chose this term to piggyback on the negative attention heaped on patent trolls, thereby arming the legislation’s opponents with a pejorative term that may scare legislators or their constituents.

Putting titles aside, the article can’t reconcile its core argument with the fact that, as the authors acknowledge, “trade secrecy has been generally free of similar trolling behavior.” In other words, there is no epidemic of frivolous trade-secret lawsuits under the current state-law framework. (Certainly, there are weak misappropriation cases, just like with any cause of action. But I haven’t seen any evidence to suggest that such cases are disproportionately filed.)

The authors try to make the point that the proposed federal acts would transform trade-secrets law such that threatening and filing frivolous lawsuits would become commonplace. Yet the article does not really explain why this is so. It gets closest when discussing the proposed ex parte seizure provisions. But as I mentioned in my response to the professors’ letter, this risk is highly overblown. Convincing a federal judge to enter ex parte relief is no simple matter. And the defendant will have the right to challenge any seizure order very soon after its entry. Federal judges will not be amused if they have been manipulated into entering unnecessary ex parte orders.

The article fears that “trolls” will be able to threaten an ex parte seizure, which will be sufficient to scare a defendant into paying up before the suit is filed. Yet any innocent defendant will know that the likelihood of such an order being entered is slim. Further, simply sending the letter would undermine an attempt to get an ex parte seizure order. If the plaintiff was able to send a demand letter, thereby putting the defendant on notice of the possible claim, then a judge would be highly skeptical of a claimed need for an ex parte order.

The article also argues that unsettled interpretative questions relating to the acts will fuel frivolous lawsuits. But the article forgets that creating a federal cause of action will quickly lead to a much more robust body of published caselaw interpreting the statute. While there are very few published trial-court-level decisions in state courts, U.S. district court orders are widely available.

Frankly, state courts are much more susceptible to frivolous trade-secrets suits than federal courts. Take Florida, for example. Here, state court judges have to deal with remarkably bloated dockets. In fact, I’ve had multiple cases where it took months to get an emergency injunction hearing. State-court judges generally don’t have law clerks. And in Florida, judges often rotate between civil, criminal, family, and dependency divisions. This latter point is critical: judges often don’t spend enough time in the civil division to develop a familiarity with trade-secrets law. All of these issues lead to uncertainty, which would seemingly aid the unscrupulous litigant looking to extort a settlement. Yet, as the authors themselves acknowledge, we simply have not seen this so-called trolling.

There’s no question that frivolous lawsuits would be filed under the proposed federal legislation, just as like every other cause of action. But there is absolutely no credible reason to believe that such suits can’t be remedied with the typical mechanisms deigned to ferret out meritless claims, like Rule 11 motions.

As I’ve argued in the past, the proposed legislation has tangible benefits that aid trade-secrets owners in protecting their critical proprietary information. The arguments lobbed up in opposition—including the manufactured risk of “trolling”—don’t hold up to careful scrutiny.

2-Minute Jimmy Kimmel Clip Shows Our Cybersecurity Culture Crisis

This video speaks volumes about our country’s attitudes towards cybersecurity:

Last week, I wrote about the importance of creating a culture that makes protection of trade secrets a top-line priority. This video shows why this culture is so important. Your employees need to be constantly aware of surreptitious attempts to get passwords. Spear phishing attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated; your employees need to be immediately suspicious of any attempt to get personal information, particularly passwords.

In the real world, bad actors are far more subtle than a Jimmy Kimmel reporter with a microphone and a video camera. The fact that people are willing to turn over their passwords on TV shows—particularly now, when cybersecurity issues have never been more visible—is depressing. Make sure your employees know better.

Trade Secrets Best Practices: Exit Interviews

This is the next in a series of posts addressing best practices for protecting trade secrets and proprietary information. Today’s topic: exit interviews, which can be a powerful tool to avoid, or at least anticipate, unwanted disclosure.

An exit interview is exactly what it sounds like. When an employee is leaving your company, you have someone meet with him to discuss various aspects of his departure. There are several goals: remind the employee of his legal obligations; make sure he has returned all company information, documents, and devices; and gather intelligence about his next job to determine the risk of unwanted disclosure.

The key is to have a set process that is automatically followed each time an employee leaves. Depending on the size and structure of your company, a single person or department should be responsible for conducting the interviews. That person should work from a checklist that includes all topics that must be discussed. To develop this process, consult with an attorney who specializes in trade-secrets issues who can help customize it to fit your company’s needs.

The checklist should include, at a minimum, the following:

Review of restrictive covenants and related agreements: Give the employee copies of any agreements he signed and remind him of specific noncompete, nonsolicitation, nondisclosure, and related obligations.

Review of non-contractual legal obligations: Remind the employee of his ongoing legal obligations to, for example, keep certain information confidential. The applicable laws vary state-by-state, so make sure to consult with an attorney familiar with your state’s laws.

Review inventory of all company devices: Hopefully, you are keeping an inventory of all company devices issued to the employee. Go through this inventory and make sure he has returned all of these devices.

Company information and documents: Ask whether the employee has any hard-copy documents or electronically stored information on his personal computer, devices, and storage medium. If he does, give a set date for him to return or destroy the documents/information.

Sign acknowledgment: Have the employee sign an acknowledgment form that confirms he is aware of his legal obligations, has returned all company devices, and returned or destroyed all company documents/information.

Gather information: Ask the employee where he will be working next, and in what capacity. Also make sure you have the employee’s updated contact information.

Additionally, prior to the interview, you should work with your IT department to see if the departing employee recently accessed or used trade-secret information, particularly in an out-of-the-ordinary manner. If so, consult with an attorney, since it may be advisable to address this issue with the employee during the exit interview.

Often, this process will allow you to handicap the risk that the departing employee will illegally use your trade secrets and proprietary information. For example, be wary of an employee who refuses to tell you where he will be working next. Or an employee who refuses to attend the exit interview. In cases where you suspect something is amiss, consult with an attorney right away, since time is of the essence in these cases.

Again, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to exit interviews. Speak with with an attorney to develop the process that best fits your company’s needs.

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